Banking Resilience and Economic Boost: India’s Positive Trends in 2023

Posted On - 1 February, 2024 • By - Aditi Motwani


The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has reported encouraging trends in India’s banking sector for the year 2023, highlighting a significant drop in the Gross Non-Performing Asset (GNPA) ratio to a new decadal low. Both banks and non-banking financial companies (NBFCs) have showcased resilience, contributing to robust earnings growth, enhanced asset quality, and double-digit credit expansion.

GNPA Ratio Reaches Decadal Low:

As of September 2023, the GNPA ratio for Scheduled Banks (SCBs) in India stands at 3.2%, down from 3.9% at the end of March 2023. This marks a new decadal low, reflecting the consistent improvement in asset quality since the financial year 2018-19. The reduction in GNPAs for SCBs in 2022-23 saw a significant contribution from recoveries and upgradations, accounting for around 45% of the overall decline.

Sector-wise Variations in Asset Quality:

The agricultural sector reported the highest GNPA ratio, underscoring the challenges faced by this segment. In contrast, retail loans exhibited the lowest GNPA ratio, showcasing the resilience of individual borrowers in the face of economic uncertainties.

Resilience of Banking and NBFCs:

Both banking and non-banking financial companies displayed resilience throughout 2023. This resilience was supported by high capital ratios, improved asset quality, and robust earnings growth. The positive performance of these financial entities contributed to double-digit credit growth and supported domestic economic activities.

Sustaining Positive Trajectory:

While acknowledging the positive trends, the RBI emphasizes the importance of reinforcing risk management practices to sustain this trajectory and build additional buffers. This cautious approach aims to ensure the continued stability and resilience of the financial sector.

Slippage Ratio and NPAs:

The slippage ratio, measuring new additions to Non-Performing Assets (NPAs) as a percentage of standard advances, moderated during 2022-23 and the first half of 2023-24. Write-offs, upgradations, and recoveries played a crucial role in reducing NPAs. The share of large borrowal accounts in total NPAs also witnessed a decline, contributing to the overall improvement in the banking sector’s asset quality.

Banking Growth and Fraud Prevention:

Commercial banks experienced significant growth in consolidated balance sheets, reaching 12.2% in 2022-23, the highest in nine years. Despite this growth, reported frauds by banks reached a six-year low, showcasing the effectiveness of fraud prevention measures.

Restructured Accounts and Special Dispensation:

The report highlights the moderation in restructured accounts following the RBI’s resolution frameworks 1.0 and 2.0, implemented in response to COVID-19 disruptions. The number of restructured standard advances decreased, indicating a return to normalcy after the pandemic-induced special dispensation.

NBFCs: Balance Sheet Growth and Caution:

NBFCs also witnessed significant balance sheet growth, supported by double-digit credit expansion. However, the RBI cautions about closely monitoring the high interconnectedness between banks and NBFCs, emphasizing the need for diversification of funding sources for NBFCs and evaluating exposure for banks.


The positive trends in India’s banking sector for 2023 reflect resilience, effective risk management, and a commitment to maintaining high asset quality. As the country moves forward, continuous monitoring and proactive measures will be essential to ensure the sustained growth and stability of the financial sector.