Resolution Process for Real Estate Companies under IBC

Posted On - 31 January, 2024 • By - King Stubb & Kasiva


The real estate sector in India stands as a pivotal force in the nation’s economic landscape and has emerged as a significant contributor to India’s economic vitality. Amidst the dynamic nature of the real estate industry, the introduction of the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) in 2016 has played a transformative role in shaping the landscape of real estate insolvency in the country. Designed to streamline and accelerate the resolution process for insolvency and bankruptcy cases, particularly in the realm of real estate investments, the IBC has garnered widespread acclaim for its efficacy in addressing longstanding challenges within the sector. With a specific focus on scenarios where investors find themselves unable to meet financial obligations related to real estate endeavours, the IBC has become a linchpin in providing a structured and transparent mechanism for resolving insolvency and bankruptcy issues. In doing so, it serves as a safeguard for the interests of both developers and homebuyers, fostering a level playing field and contributing to the overall resilience of the real estate ecosystem in India.

About the Amendment:

The benefits of the Real Estate IBC resolution process in India, as introduced through the January 2023 amendment, are multi-fold. Firstly, the implementation of a fast-track resolution process, leveraging technological interventions and digital platforms, streamlines the Corporate Insolvency Resolution Process for cases involving corporate debtors, including executives of real estate companies. Secondly, a noteworthy outcome of the amendment is the alleviation of hardships faced by homebuyers and project allottees, diminishing challenges associated with claiming possession and subsequent legal proceedings. Furthermore, by treating conflicted or defaulted projects as distinct entities within a company’s portfolio, the resolution process ensures that other ventures or projects remain undisturbed, allowing the company to fulfil commitments seamlessly.

A third significant feature of this amendment is the separation of the legal entity of the regular project from the one in conflict, facilitating the exploration of more project-specific solutions. This not only aids in settling disputes between buyers and project developers more effectively but also fosters an amicable resolution. By allowing for focused attention on each project’s unique circumstances, the amendment paves the way for tailored solutions that benefit all parties involved. In essence, the January 2023 amendment to the IBC in India stands as a progressive and pragmatic response to the complexities of the real estate sector, promising a more streamlined, efficient, and equitable resolution process that serves the interests of all stakeholders.


In January 2023, the Ministry of Corporate Affairs in India took a commendable step by inviting public comments on proposed amendments under the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (IBC) regime. One pivotal amendment pertains to the codification of the reverse Corporate Insolvency Resolution Process (CIRP) and the introduction of project-wise resolution. The proposed modification to Section 28 of the IBC is poised to empower resolution professionals to facilitate the transfer of ownership and possession of units to allottees, subject to the consent of the Committee of Creditors.

This foresighted initiative recognizes the intricate challenges inherent in the real estate sector and underscores the imperative for a specialized resolution framework tailored to its unique complexities. The envisioned framework ought to be all-encompassing, considering the interests of all stakeholders, while concurrently providing mechanisms for efficient asset management, project completion, and the expeditious allotment or compensation to homebuyers. Recognizing the need for expertise, the involvement of qualified professionals, including insolvency practitioners, real estate experts, and legal advisors, is envisaged to play a pivotal role in enhancing the effectiveness of the resolution process.

On January 18, 2023, the Central Government, in conjunction with the Insolvency & Bankruptcy Board of India (IBBI), unveiled a pivotal discussion paper laying the foundation for amendments to the Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016. This proposal specifically addresses the imperative need for a project-specific Corporate Insolvency Resolution Process (CIRP) for real estate companies grappling with defaulted projects. The crux of this proposal lies in its commitment to ensuring that homebuyers, who find themselves unable to obtain possession of their properties, are not ensnared in protracted legal battles. The envisioned CIRP for real estate companies entails the appointment of an interim resolution professional (IRP) tasked with assuming control over the company’s assets and operations. The IRP is mandated to assess the company’s financial position and formulate a resolution plan, which could either revive the company or facilitate its orderly winding up. Central to this process is the submission of claims by creditors, the identification and valuation of assets, the submission of resolution plans by interested parties, and the ultimate selection of a resolution plan through voting by the Committee of Creditors (CoC).

A noteworthy evolution introduced by the IBC is the reclassification of homebuyers as financial creditors, marking a transformative shift in their role within the resolution process of insolvent real estate companies under the IBC framework. In contrast to the earlier classification where homebuyers were relegated to the status of unsecured creditors with limited rights and influence, the amended IBC recognizes them as financial creditors. This recalibration has profound implications for the real estate sector and significantly impacts developers. Previously, homebuyers found themselves in precarious situations, bereft of meaningful recourse, and compelled to endure the protracted resolution process with the hope of eventual compensation for their investments.


The paradigm shift ushered in by the IBC is instrumental in empowering homebuyers as financial creditors, affording them a tangible voice and participation rights in the resolution process. This newfound status ensures that homebuyers have a seat at the decision-making table, a privilege previously elusive to them. Consequently, they can actively engage in the resolution process, contributing to crucial decisions that impact the fate of the real estate company. This progressive alteration not only redresses the historical imbalance in the rights of homebuyers but also fosters a more equitable and inclusive resolution framework, aligning with the broader objectives of the IBC to enhance the efficiency and fairness of insolvency proceedings.