Legal Landscape for Electric Vehicles in India: Investment Outlook Guide

Posted On - 3 March, 2023 • By - King Stubb & Kasiva

Electric vehicles in India have gained momentum in recent years, driven by the government’s push towards a cleaner and sustainable future. The country’s EV market has witnessed steady growth and investment in electric vehicles, with sales of electric cars and two-wheelers reaching 5.6 lakh units in 2020, a significant increase from 3.8 lakh units in 2019. In the financial year 2022, the leading type of electric vehicle in India was two-wheelers, with more than 600,000 units sold. The year-on-year growth was recorded at 305% as against sales in the year 2021, which was 151,685 units sold. This was a significant increase from the previous year’s value.

In addition to the above, with the rise of startups and innovative companies in the electric vehicle industry in India, it is poised to become a major player in the global EV market. Companies such as Ola Electric and Ather Energy have been making significant strides in developing and manufacturing electric scooters, while Tata Motors and Mahindra & Mahindra have been investing in the development of electric cars.

However, for the successful adoption and growth of electric vehicles in India, a strong legal framework is vital. With the rising demand for EVs in India, the adoption of uniform standards for electric vehicles in India has become necessary. Standardization in the electric vehicle industry is essential for ensuring the interoperability of EVs and charging infrastructure. The government has adopted global standards such as Bharat EV specifications to promote the manufacture and use of electric vehicles in India.

A strong legal framework would also play a critical role in addressing environmental concerns such as reducing carbon emissions and promoting sustainable transportation. By promoting the adoption of EVs, there will be a significant reduction in the dependency on fossil fuels and this in turn will promote sustainable transportation practices.

Regulations and Policies for Electric Vehicles

India is taking bold steps towards electrifying its transportation sector, and the legal, regulatory and policy frameworks are gradually being put in place to support the transition. Let’s take a closer look at the regulatory and policy framework for electric vehicles (EVs) in India and how it is shaping the future of sustainable transportation.

The government of India has set ambitious goals to transition to electric vehicles, with a target of 30% of all vehicles being electric by 2030. To achieve this, a range of policy and regulatory measures have been introduced. These include:

  1. FAME II Scheme: The FAME (Faster Adoption and Manufacture of Electric Vehicles) project is a government effort in India to encourage electric transportation. The FAME II plan promises to give financial benefits to customers who buy electric cars, with a total reward of around INR 10,000 crores. The initiative also intends to aid in the construction of charging infrastructure around the country.
  2. GST Benefits: The government has reduced the Goods and Services Tax (GST) on electric vehicles from 12% to 5%, making EVs more affordable for customers.
  3. Import Duty Exemption: The government has exempted customs duty on imported electric vehicle components to encourage the domestic manufacturing of EVs.
  4. State-Level Incentives: Several states in India have announced their own policies and incentives to promote the adoption of EVs. For example, the Delhi government offers a subsidy of up to INR 30,000 for electric two-wheelers, INR 1.5 lakhs for electric cars, and INR 30 lakhs for electric buses.
  5. National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP): To promote the use of EVs in public transportation, the government also launched the National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NEMMP), which includes measures to encourage the use of EVs in public transportation such as buses and taxis.

In terms of regulations, the government has introduced the Bharat Stage VI emission standards, which aim to reduce harmful emissions from vehicles. These regulations have incentivized manufacturers to shift towards electric vehicles, which have zero tailpipe emissions.

The electric vehicle industry in India has enormous potential to transform India’s transportation sector, but it also faces several legal challenges that need to be addressed. Despite the progress made in developing the regulatory and policy framework for EVs in India, there still are hurdles to overcome for the growth of this sector.

  1. Regulatory framework: One of the primary legal challenges faced by EVs in India is related to the lack of a clear regulatory framework. While the government has introduced policies to promote the adoption of EVs, there is still a need for more clarity on issues such as taxation, charging infrastructure, and safety regulations. This lack of clarity can create uncertainty amongst consumers and manufacturers and may hinder investment in the EV sector.
  2. Charging infrastructure: Another legal challenge is related to the availability of charging infrastructure. While the government has launched several initiatives to promote the development of charging infrastructure, there is still a significant gap in the availability of charging stations across the country. This lack of infrastructure can make it difficult for consumers to adopt EVs, and may also limit the growth of the EV market.
  3. EVs in public transportation: There are also issues related to the use of EVs in public transportation, such as buses and taxis. There is a need for clear regulations and policies that can encourage the adoption of EVs in public transportation, while also addressing issues such as safety and insurance.
  4. Integration of EVs with the power grid: As more and more EVs are added to the grid, it is essential tothere is a need to ensure that the power infrastructure can handle the increased demand and that the integration of EVs does not cause disruptions or blackouts.

Despite the challenges faced by the EV sector in India, there is reason to be optimistic about the future of EVs in India. The government has shown a strong commitment to promoting EVs and has introduced several initiatives to support their adoption. In addition to this, the private sector is also investing heavily in the development of EVs and charging infrastructure.

There are several potential solutions to the legal challenges faced by electric vehicles (EVs) in India. A few such solutions are as follows:

  1. Clear and comprehensive regulations: The introduction of clear and comprehensive regulations can address issues such as taxation, charging infrastructure, and safety standards. This can provide greater certainty for manufacturers and consumers alike, and may encourage more investment in the EV sector.
  • Development of charging infrastructure: This can be achieved through public-private partnerships and government incentives, which can encourage the private sector to invest in the development of charging stations. Additionally, the government can consider introducing policies that require new commercial buildings and housing complexes to include EV charging infrastructure as part of their construction plans.
  • Adoption of EVs in public transportation: The government may providecan consider providing incentives and subsidies to public transport providers who adopt EVs. This can include providing funding for the purchase of EVs, as well as support for the development of charging infrastructure.
  • Integration of EVs with the power grid: By implementing smart charging solutions that can manage the demand for electricity from EVs, the power requirement for EVs in India can be addressed. This can include the use of advanced metering infrastructure, which can enable the monitoring and management of electricity consumption in real-time.

Investment Opportunities in the Electric Vehicle Industry in India

The electric vehicle industry in India offers several investment opportunities, both for domestic and overseas investors. Some of the key investment opportunities in the sector are:

  1. Manufacturing of EV Components: The manufacturing of electric vehicle components is a lucrative investment opportunity in India, as the government has exempted customs duty on imported EV components. The manufacturing of batteries, motors, and chargers for EVs is a high-growth area, and several domestic and international players have invested in the sector.
  2. Infrastructure for Electric Vehicle Charging: The construction of EV charging infrastructure is a fundamental necessity for the broad use of electric automobiles in India. The government has announced intentions to build over 2,700 electric vehicle charging stations across the country, creating a substantial investment opportunity for both domestic and international businesses.
  3. Electric Vehicle Manufacturing: Electric vehicle manufacturing is a high-growth industry in India, with various domestic and foreign businesses investing in the field. The convergence of the Indian government’s push for electric transportation and the increasing consumer demand for EVs has created a favourable environment for electric car manufacturers. This presents a promising opportunity for the industry to grow and innovate, while also contributing to India’s efforts to reduce carbon emissions and improve air quality. Tata Motors, Mahindra & Mahindra, and Hero Electric are some of the leading companies in India’s electric car production business.
  4. Battery Manufacturing: Batteries are an essential component of electric cars, and EV battery production in India is an appealing investment opportunity. The concerted efforts of the Indian government to promote electric transportation, coupled with the growing market demand for EVs, have created a conducive environment for battery manufacturers. This presents a favourable opportunity for the industry to thrive and expand, while also contributing to India’s ambitious goals of reducing carbon emissions and improving air quality. Numerous domestic and foreign companies have already invested in Indian battery production.
  5. Research and Development: The Indian electric vehicle industry is at a stage where it can offer immense potential for research and development in the field. This presents an optimistic outlook for the industry to innovate and develop new technologies, making EVs more affordable, efficient, and sustainable. With continued investments in R&D, the Indian EV industry can grow and establish itself as a leading force in the global EV market. The advancement of sophisticated electric vehicle technologies, such as battery and charging technology, presents considerable investment possibilities for organisations seeking to innovate and remain competitive.

Investing in the electric vehicle industry in India is not only an attractive financial proposition, but it also offers environmental benefits. The widespread adoption of electric vehicles in India will help reduce carbon emissions and improve air quality, which is a major concern in many cities in India.

The Environmental and Social Impact of Electric Vehicles in India

EVs have the potential to significantly reduce carbon emissions and improve air quality in Indian cities. This is especially important given India’s struggles with high levels of pollution, which have been linked to serious health problems.

EVs also have the potential to reduce India’s dependence on imported oil, which can improve energy security and reduce the country’s trade deficit. Additionally, the growth of the EV industry in India can create new job opportunities in manufacturing, infrastructure development, and research and development.

However, there are also some potential social and environmental concerns associated with the growth of the EV industry as well. For instance, the production of lithium-ion batteries, which are commonly used in EVs, requires significant amounts of water and can result in the release of harmful chemicals into the environment. Additionally, the disposal of used batteries can create environmental challenges if proper recycling and disposal processes are not in place.

Another concern is the potential impact of EVs on India’s electricity grid. If EVs become widely adopted, there may be significant increases in demand for electricity, which could lead to the need for additional power generation capacity. This could have environmental implications if additional power generation comes from fossil fuel sources.

Overall, while there are some potential environmental and social concerns associated with the growth of the EV industry in India, the benefits of reducing carbon emissions, improving air quality, and creating new job opportunities far outweigh these concerns. With a coordinated effort between the government, industry, and other stakeholders, these concerns can be addressed and the growth of the EV industry can be a positive force for change in India.


As the world’s second-most populous country and with a growing middle class, India presents a huge opportunity for the EV market to grow and thrive. In recent years, the Indian government has taken significant steps to support the development and adoption of EVs, including offering incentives for EV purchases, investing in charging infrastructure, and launching initiatives to encourage domestic manufacturing of EV components.

Additionally, EVs, with their zero tailpipe emissions, are an attractive solution to address concerns around air pollution and a clean and sustainable environment. All of these factors suggest a promising future for the EV industry in India. With the right policies and investments, the Indian market has the potential to become a global leader in EV adoption and production, contributing to a cleaner, more sustainable future for all.


What are some of the key investment opportunities in the electric vehicle industry in India?

In India’s electric vehicle sector, there are various important investment prospects, including EV component manufacturing, EV charging infrastructure, electric car manufacturing, battery production, and research u0026amp; development. The rising demand for EVs in the foreseeable future, shall help build a favourable climate for domestic and foreign firms to invest in the EV industry in India.

What are some of the challenges associated with investing in the electric vehicle industry in India?

The electric car business in India comes with a set of challenges in terms of investment. These challenges include absence of charging infrastructure, hefty initial investment, dependency on battery technology, and rivalry from established automakers. Furthermore, navigating India’s regulatory climate can be difficult for foreign investors.

What are some of the environmental benefits of investing in the electric vehicle industry in India?

Investment in India’s electric vehicle sector has several environmental benefits, including lower carbon emissions and improved air quality. India has some of the world’s most polluted cities, and broad adoption of electric cars has the potential to drastically lower air pollution levels. Also, electric vehicles are more energy-efficient than regular automobiles and can help lessen the country’s dependency on fossil resources.

King Stubb & Kasiva,
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