According to Bhupender Yadav, Minister for Labour and Employment, the e-Shram portal – which is being used to register workers in the unorganised sector and assist them in receiving social security benefits – is being connected with the One Nation One Ration Card scheme. Based on the geographical data of monthly food grain collections from PDS outlets, the ministry is in the process of integrating e-Shram with the One Nation One Ration Card. A correlation of location data with permanent addresses on the e-Shram portal is expected to aid in the identification of migratory workers.
The idea is that the worker's location will not prevent them from receiving the benefits of social security since E-Shram will dynamically communicate all essential data with state governments.
Be it as it may, in 2008, the Unorganized Workers Social Security Board was established. In 2015, the Unorganized Worker Identification Number (UWIN) was established. The goal of all of these programmes, cards, and platforms was to count informal and migratory labour. However, nothing happened in the name of social security for workers based on such campaigns. There is a need for employers to participate in this system along with the workers.
The private sector employs the majority of migrant workers – their engagement would be beneficial. The E-shram system aims to develop a system of social registration for employees in the unorganised sector. The first step is to register, the next step is to figure out how to lessen risk through security.
It is their right that no Indian ever be left behind on the path of development. Targeting the delivery of welfare packages for crores of Indians is crucial for this purpose. Within eight months, E-Shram, a nationwide database of unorganised labourers all over the country, has registered 25 crore unorganised labourers.
Some fundamental critiques:
The e-Shram is designed to fill a key data and estimation gap. There are various advanced features, including self-registration. Any informal labourer could now identify himself or herself as one without having to provide proof or an employment certificate.
However, there are certain structural and fundamental criticisms concerning e-Shram's design and layout. It isn't validated by any legal provisions; it isn't a legally mandated right that workers can hold the government and businesses responsible for. Further, informal labourers are already downtrodden and have no way of guaranteeing that they are registered or have access to basic services under e-Shram. It is a design that is far from ideal for inclusion. Then there's the issue of the digital divide, which needs mediation. The social security legislation passed by Parliament has yet to be completely enforced, and the distinction between informal and regular workers remains.
If an informal labourer is engaged in a business with less than ten workers, the employer is not required to provide them with ESIC or PF benefits. However, e-Shram does nothing to ensure that these employer-mandated requirements are routed through these registrations.
It merely provides a haphazard insurance cover and basic health care benefits, with no attempt to form an employer-employee connection in this situation. The connection between the one-nation-one-ration card and e-Shram is a hopeful step forward, but it is still a long way off.
At last, the priorities to be focused on are:
It is necessary to make it mandatory for companies and employers to enlist their informal, temporary, and casual labourers. The use of the e-Shram registration method to route benefits will make a significant difference in the formalisation of labour. People are now sceptical of information regarding the effectiveness of e-Shram. A public awareness campaign is required to assure them. Our technology is also currently incompatible with social security plans, of which there are hundreds.
For the average migrant labourer, the portal has to be seen as a centralized platform. We require facilitation assistance because all workers are unable to utilise technology on their own. This issue has to do with the worker's dignity and respect.
Women's challenges and needs should also be prioritised. We must pay attention to migrant workers' concerns in states where they will be concentrated, particularly interstate and eventually make the private sector a part of the process.